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The Value of Iridoids

What is the difference between the so-called super fruit juices with flavanoids and the Bioactive Beverages with Iridoids? This two and a half minute video clearly explains the superiority of Iridoids.


Morinda Bioactives (formerly Tahitian Noni International) has the largest laboratory in the world dedicated to studying the properties of the noni fruit.


Many people around the world over the years have reported positive improvements in health and wellbeing after drinking Morinda Bioctives beverages such as Tahitian NoniTM Juice and we may be tempted to believe that their "recovery" or improvement arises primarily from wishful thinking or from their suggestibility. However, similar reports of increased health and energy are reported in animals. These animal reports cover many areas of compromised wellbeing but include such things as wound healing, increased performance in competitive animals and overcoming poisoning.

Traditional Uses

Among the cultures who extensively used noni as part of their medical regimens, it was applied to the treatment of, among many other things, flu, colds, constipation, parasitic infection, wound healing and fevers. Considering that the raw noni tastes bitter and unpleasant it is a testimony to its effectiveness that these people continued its use for many centuries. We are fortunate in these days to have access to the same wonderful substance but with the bitterness masked by the flavouring of natural fruit juices and untainted by preservatives or harmful additives.

Research and Noni

At this point in time there has been significant research conducted using noni fruit juice including sixteen human clinical trials with Tahitian NoniTM Juice ( not any other brand). Included among these is a doctoral thesis written by Dr. Hirazumi (1) at the University of Hawaii in 1994.

To access some of these studies please go to websites or to the articles listed below for more information. Please also refer to the references at the back of the free ebook which can be accessed from this site: Why Noni Works.

Tahitian Noni TMJuice/TruAge OriginalTM

Bioactives are natural compounds that are biologically active in the body. Bioactives from medicinal plants have the potential to improve health in ways that go beyond what ordinary vitamin, mineral, and herbal supplements can offer. This is borne out in an ever-growing body of research. Independent scientists around the world have confirmed that a substantial number of bioactives provide verifiable health benefits without harmful side effects

30mg of Iridoids per 60ml
Iridoid sources: Noni fruit and blueberry

Original uses the power of natural bioactives, including proprietary iridoid blends, to deliver a remarkable range of health benefits—without side effects. Each 60 ml serving delivers 30 mg of iridoids from these medicinal plant sources.

Enhances the immune system

Studies have shown that adults who drank the healthy bioactives in Thrive Adaptogenics experienced a 30% increase (over 2 months) in natural killer cell activity. Natural killer cells are a major part of the immune system's first line of defense. In addition, users experienced a 32% increase in interleukin-2, or IL-2 for short. IL-2 is a molecule in the immune system which signals in times of distress.

Natural Energy Supplement

Increased energy is one of the key benefits people experience when they start drinking Thrive Adaptogenics. Our adaptogenic supplements have also been scientifically shown to increase endurance. The results were demonstrated in a controlled clinical trial involving advanced athletes. In the study, forty long-distance runners were divided into different groups. One group was given bioactives (found in Thrive beverages) over the course of three weeks. The other group was provided with a placebo drink made of blackberry concentrate. After three weeks were completed, the group which consumed the bioactive beverages experienced significant improvements - with an average increase in endurance of 21%.

Improve Heart Health

Dr. Mian-Ying Wang, from the University of Illinois College of Medicine, presented at the American Heart Association's 46th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention. Her presentation was based on a study on the effects of bioactives on heavy cigarette smokers. The study found that drinking the bioactive supplements in Thrive Adaptogenics helped lower triglycerides by as much as 54% and LDL cholesterol by 10%.

Further Research

Some websites which contain research on noni are:

Some Literature References (1990's)

  1. Hirazumi A. et al, (1994), Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngeneic Mice, Dept. of Pathology, Uni. Of Hawaii, Hawaii
  2. Younos,C., (1990), Analgesic and Behavioural Effects of Morinda Citrifolia, Planta Medica Oct.pp.430-434
  3. Tarasiuk, J. et al, (1998), The role of structural factors of anthraquinone compounds and their quinone-modified analogues in NADH dehydrogenase-catalysed oxygen radical formation, Anticancer Drug Des.,Dec. pp.923-39.
  4. Tarasiuk, J. et al, (1998), The role of structural factors of anthraquinone compounds and their quinone-modified analogues in NADH dehydrogenase-catalysed oxygen radical formation, Anticancer Drug Des.,Dec. pp.923-39.
  5. Springs/7514/paperchase.htm p.1.
  6. Higuchi, H. et al, (1991), Antiretroviral activities of anthraquinones and their inhibitory effects on reverse transcriptase.Antiviral Res. Mar-Apr.1991, pp.205-16
  7. 51.Erazo,S. et al,(1997) Phytochemical and biological study of radal Lomatia hirsuta (Proteaceae), J. Ethnopharmacol, Jul:57(2):81-3
  8. Obidoa, O. Obasi, SC, (1991), Coumarin compounds in cassava diets:2 health implications of scopoletin in gari,Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. July 41(3):283-9
  9. Kayser, O.,Kolodziej, H. (1997), Antibacterial activity of extracts and constituents of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme, Planta Med Dec:63(6):508-10
  10. Kikuko, T., Hair-raising Cosmetic, Japanese Patent No. 05286835.
  11. Kowalewski, Z. et al, (1976), Antibiotic Action of beta-ursolic acid, Arch. Immunol.Ther. Exp.(Warsz)24(1),11
  12. Zaletova, N. et al (1987), Preparation of some derivatives of ursolic acid and their antimicrobial activity,Chemical Ab. 106, 18867e
  13. Heinicke, R., The Pharmacologically Active Ingedient of Noni, University of Hawaii


Some Literature References (2000's)

Cancer Research, 61(15):5749-5756, 2001
Two Novel Glycosides From the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP-1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line
Liu, G., Bode, A., Ma, W.Y., Sang, S., Ho, C.T., Dong, Z.

Two novel glycosides, 6-O- (beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, were extracted from noni fruit juice. Experimental results indicated that both compounds were effective in suppressing cell transformation in cancer.

Nutrition, 131:3151S-3152S, 2001
Morinda citrifolia and Cancer Prevention
Wang, M-Y., Su, C., Nowicki, D., Jensen, J., Anderson, G.

The authors report laboratory evidence supporting the possible prevention of cancer in rats by noni juice. They were able to demonstrate a reduction of DNA adduct formation in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney of laboratory female rats by 26%, 41%, 42%, and 80%, respectively. More dramatic results were reported for male rats. The authors theorize that the blockage of DNA adducts (compounds that attach themselves to DNA, which scientists believe are then involved in carcinogenesis) is largely responsible. Additionally, strong antioxidant activity (scavenging of free radicals) of noni juice was also demonstrated.

DNA adduct is an abnormal piece of DNA covalently-bonded to a cancer-causing chemical. This has shown to be the start of a cancerous cell, or carcinogenesis. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as bio-markers and as such are themselves measured to reflect quantitatively, for comparison, the amount of cancer in the subject, i.e. rats or other living animals. Under experimental conditions for study, such DNA adducts are induced by known carcinogens, of which commonly used is DMBA, chemically structured and named as 7,12-Dimethyl-benz[a] Anthracene . For example, a scientific journal that writes "DMBA - DNA adduct" is referring to a piece of DNA that has the chemical DMBA attached to it. The presence of such adduct indicates the presence of cancer in the subject animal.[1]


Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 952:161-168, 2001
Cancer Preventive Effect of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)
Wang, M-Y, Su, C.

Preliminary data indicated that 10% TAHITIAN NONI â Liquid Dietary Supplement in drinking water for one week was able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The antioxidant activity of TNJ was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder, and Pycnogenole at the daily dose recommended by the manufacturers in the US RDA. The results suggest that inhibition of DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity of TNJ may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia.

11th Ann. Res. Conf. on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Poster Session. July 16-17, 2001
Morinda citrifolia and Cancer Prevention
Wang, M-Y

In an in-vivo study (conducted in a living cell or organism), TAHITIAN Noni Juice reduced DNA adducts (chemical changes in DNA that result from damage), caused by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz (a)-anthracene (DMBA). TNJ showed stronger antioxidant activities (natural body chemicals or drugs that reduce oxidative damage, such as that caused by free radicals) compared to Vitamin C, Pycnogenolâ, and Grape seed powder. The antioxidant activities of TNJ may contribute to the mechanism of reducing DNA adduct formation.

Journal Natural Products, 64(6):799-800, 2001
Iridoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia
Sang, S, Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.

A new iridoid glucoside named citrifolinoside A, was isolated from Morinda citrifolia leaves along with the known iridoids asperuloside and asperulosidic acid.

Organic Letters, 3(9):1307-1309, 2001
A New Unusual Iridoid with Inhibition of Activator Protein -1 (AP-1) from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia L.
Sang, S, Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.

From the leaves of Morinda citrifolia, a new unusual iridoid, named citrifolinoside (1), showing significant inhibition of UVB-induced AP-1 (Activator Protein-1, which is involved in cancer induction) activity in cell cultures, has been isolated.

XI Biennial Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research International, Jul. 16-20, 2002
Protective Effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Plasma SAR and LPO in Current Smokers
Wang, M-Y., Cheerva, A., Su, C., Jensen, J., Nowicki, D., Anderson, G., Jensen, S., Fritz, J.W.

In this study, the authors examined the protective effects of Tahitian Noni® Juice on plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) in current smokers. These two compounds, or their byproducts, are deleterious to human health, and are known to increase in smokers. A one-month randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial (neither the subjects nor experimenter knew who was receiving the test material or the placebo), was carried out. Sixty-eight subjects were supplemented with two ounces of Tahitian Noni® Juice or placebo twice a day for 30 days. There was no effect on plasma SAR or LPO levels in the placebo group. However, the SAR and LPO levels in the Tahtian Noni® Juice group showed a 27% reduction (p<0.05), and 23% (p=0.05) reduction, respectively. The “p=<0.05” means that the probability of getting different results in a duplicate test would be no greater than 5%. The results indicate that Tahitian Noni brand Juice may protect individuals from oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke, and therefore may help to reduce smoking-related cancer risk.

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 23 (12):1127-1141, 2002
Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A Literature Review and Recent Advances in Noni Research
Wang, M-Y, West, B.J., Jensen, C.J., Nowicki, D., Su, C.X., Palu, A.K., Anderson, G.

Morinda citrifolia L (noni) has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2000 years. Included in the anti-oxidant information are the results of a human clinical study in which heavy smokers, who drank TAHITIAN NONI® Juice for one month, showed a significant 23% and 27% reduction of free radicals in their blood. In order to reveal the nutritional and medicinal value of the noni plant, and to summarize scientific evidence that supports the Polynesians’ claim, the authors provide a literature review and recent advances in noni research. Phytother Res., 16(7):683-685, 2002
Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae)
Saludes, Jonel P., Garson, M.J., Franzblau, S.G., Aguinaldo, A.M.

A crude ethanol extract and hexane fraction from Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) show antitubercular activity. The major constituents of the hexane fraction are E-phytol, cycloartenol, stigmasterol, -sitosterol, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol and the ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one. E-Phytol, a mixture of the two ketosteroids, and the epidioxysterol derived from campesta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol all show pronounced antitubercular activity.

Integrative Cancer Therapies, 1(2):110-120, 2002
From Polynesian Healers to Health Food Stores: Changing Perspectives of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae)
McClatchey, W.

Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. This is a literature review and recommendations for doing additional cancer research on noni.

J. Agricultural Food Chemistry, 49(9):4478-4481, 2001
Flavonol Glycosides and Novel Iridoid Glycoside from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia
Sang, S., Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, Re., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.

One new iridoid glycoside (defensive compounds produced by plants) and five known flavonol glycosides (which function as antioxidants) were isolated from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia. Their antioxidant (free radical scavenging) potential was measured, and all compounds showed antioxidant activity.

8th Biennial Symposium on Minorities, the Medically Underserved and Cancer, Poster Session. Feb. 6-10, 2002
Cancer Preventive Effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice at the Initiation Stage of Carcinogenesis
Wang, M-W.

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice reduced DNA adduct formation and exhibited hepatic protection. TNJ’s selective COX-2 inhibition and antioxidant activities may contribute to the mechanisms of both cancer prevention and hepatic protection.

J. Food Chemistry, 78(2):227-231, 2002
Antioxidative Activity of Extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) Root, Fruit and Leaf
Zin, Z. M., Abdul-Hamid, A., Osman, A.

This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts from different parts of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.), including leaf, fruit and root. Methanol and ethyl acetate were used as solvents and antioxidative effects measured by a ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). Roots showed the highest activity of the parts tested. The results suggest that several compounds contribute to antioxidative activity of different parts of Mengkudu. Activity in the roots may be due to both polar and non-polar compounds but, in the leaf and fruit, only to non-polar compounds.

J. Medicinal Food, 7:343-348, 2004
The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants In Vitro: A Preliminary Study
Jagetia, G.S., Baliga, M.S.

In this in-vitro study, the authors evaluated the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. In terms of potency of scavenging activity, Morinda citrifolia (Noni) ranked 3rd among the 17 plants tested. The authors conclude that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.

J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(19):5843-5848, 2004
Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation
K. Kamiya, Tanaka, Y., Endang, H., Umar, M., Satake, T.

Extracts of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia inhibited arteriosclerosis (thickening and hardening of the arteries) by 88% and 96%. Two novel compounds (americanoic acid A and morindolin) were also isolated. Four other compounds were found to exhibit strong anti-oxidant (scavenging of free radicals) activity. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (weakly acidic organic compounds, containing one or more atoms of hydrogen and oxygen bonded together).

The Worldnutra, 2004 Conference. Poster Session #30
Total Antioxidant Capacity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products as Affected by Processing and Storage
Yang, J., Paulino, R.J., Janke-Stedronsky, S.

Tropical noni (Morinda citrifolia L) fruits are commercially processed into juice and powders for disease prevention and therapies. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh squeezed noni juice is equivalent to 127 mg ascorbic acid (vitamin C)/100 ml assayed by scavenging the free radical 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy. Two month traditional fermentation decreased the TAC of noni juice by 70%. Noni juice stored at 24°C for 2 months reduced TAC by 80%. Fresh noni juice stored at -18°C for 2 months exhibited no significant changes of TAC. The TAC of Noni powders dehydrated by hot air or freeze drying was reduced by 45% and 20%, respectively.

J. Nat. Prod., 68:592-595, 2005
Chemical Constituents of the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) and Their Antioxidant Activity
Su, B-N., Pawlus, A.D., Jung, H-A., Keller, W.J. McLaughlin, J.L., Kinghorn, A.D.

The authors report the isolation of 19 phytochemicals (non-vitamin substances in fruits and vegetables that are important for health) from the fruit of noni (M. citrifolia). Two of these phytochemicals are newly discovered, having never been known to exist anywhere prior to this study. They belong to a class known as iridoid glucosides, which are important because of their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. One of the 17 remaining compounds, americanin A, was shown to be a potent anti-oxidant. The chemical names of each of these 19 compounds are also provided.

TC Duoc Lieu, 10:128-132, 2005
The Effect of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Extracts of Viet Nam on Rat Hepatic Enzyme Metabolism
Do Thi Tuyen; Ly Thi Bich Thuy; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Dao,

Morinda citrifolia, known commercially as noni, grows widely throughout the Pacific and is one of the valuable sources of traditional medicines among Pacific island societies. The authors tested the effect of noni fruit extracts of Viet Nam on rat hepatic enzyme metabolism. Noni extracts markedly reduced the pathologic changes observed in CC14-chronically treated rats. It significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity by 31% compared with control model rats, and 38% compared with the untreated controls. The imbalance in lipid metabolism could be the reason for increase in lipid peroxidation. The treatment with noni significantly inhibited the rise of MDA, and improved antioxidant status in CCI4-treated rats. Furthermore, noni fruit extracts significantly increased the P450 activity in comparison with the negative control (especially, P450 reductase NADPH (CPR) activity).

93rd Ann. Meeting, American Assoc. Cancer Res. April 6-10, 2002
Protective Effect of Morinda citrifolia on Hepatic Injury Induced by a Liver Carcinogen
Wang, M-Y.

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice showed a protective effect on hepatic injury induced by a liver carcinogen. As a selective COX-2 inhibitor, TNJ may protect liver by suppressing COX-2 enzyme.

7th International Conf. on Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Disease, Poster Session. Oct. 14-17, 2001
Protective Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) On Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury In Female Sd Rats
Wang, M-Y

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice showed hepatic protection in rats’ damaged liver caused by CCl4. The antioxidant level was examined and the results indicated that TNJ may protect liver from damage by scavenging free radicals and blocking lipid peroxidation.

Proc West Pharmacol Soc., 45:76-78, 2002
Preliminary investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous extract from Morinda citrifolia (noni)
McKoy, M.L, Thomas, E.A., Simon, O.R.

The results of this study clearly indicated the anti-inflammatory potential of both orally and ip administered noni fruit juice extract. The results also suggest that there is a high probability for therapeutic effectiveness of the fruit juice against some inflammatory conditions as claimed by folklore practitioners in Jamaica.

93rd Ann. Meeting, American Assoc. Cancer Res. April 6-10, 2002
Protective Effect of Morinda citrifolia on Hepatic Injury Induced by a Liver Carcinogen
Wang, M-Y.

In an in-vivo study, TAHITIAN NONI Juice showed a protective effect on hepatic injury induced by a liver carcinogen. As a selective COX-2 inhibitor, TNJ may protect liver by suppressing COX-2 enzyme.

American Society of Microbioloogy, Annual Meeting, May 2002, Salt Lake City, UT
Preliminary Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn.
Gerson, S.

Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn. exhibit significant antimicrobial and anti fungal activity against various strains of fungi and bacteria A. niger, C. albicans, E. coli, S. aureus, and T. mentagrophytes.

.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 23(12):1127-1141, 2002
Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A Literature Review and Recent Advances in Noni Research
Wang, M-Y, West, B.J., Jensen, C.J., Nowicki, D., Su, C.X., Palu, A.K., Anderson, G.

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, antihelminthic, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. Pharmacokinetic study of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice (TNJ) using scopoletin as a marker is included. Allergenicity and toxicity tests of TNJ show it to be safe with a NOAEL of 80 ml TNJ/kg/day. (original article found at

2005 IFT Annual Meeting, July 15-20 - New Orleans, Louisiana. Session 18E, Nutraceutical & Functional Foods: General I
Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni): A dual inhibitor of COX-2/5-LOX Enzymes
Palu, A.K., Jensen, C.J., Zhou, B-N., Su, C.

Morinda citrifolia L.(Noni) fruit juice has been used in all of Polynesia for over 2000 years for treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, gout and many other ailments that had been reported in the literature. However, only recently that Noni has been proven scientifically to be efficacious in many of the diseases listed above and much more. Scientists around the world including us are using different types of experiments (in-vitro & in-vivo) to test the antimicro-bial, anticancer, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory effects of Noni. The anti-inflammatory effects of Noni and the Brand TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice (TNJ) was discovered by Chen Su et al (Wang et al, 2002) from our lab in which they demonstrated that Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ are inhibitors of COX-2 enzymes. The previous discovery has led to the investigation and the subsequent discovery that Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ also affect the lipoxygenase enzymes which are also part of the arachi-donic acid metabolic pathways. Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ are potent inhibitors of 5-LOX and 15-LOX enzymes. Hence, Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ are dual inhibi-tors of both COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes which are potential candidate for neuroprotection, anticancer and anti-inflammation. These inhibitory effects on the arachidonic acid metabolic pathways might explain at least in part why Tahitian Noni fruit juice and TNJ are used as dietary supplements to improve our health naturally. (view original abstract online at

Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 12(11), part 2, (1354S), 2003
Synergistic effect of Tahitian Noni® juice (TNJ) and methylsulfonymethane (MSM) on mammary breast cancer prevention at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats
Wang, M-Y, Anderson, G.L., Nowicki, D.

An examination of whether TNJ and MSM have a synergistic effect on mammary breast cancer prevention at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female SD rats.

Natural Product Research, 17(5):355-360, 2003
Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. Leaves
Siddiqui, B.S., Sattar Ismail, F.A., Gulzar, T., Begum, S.

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated through spectroscopic studies and NMR data that are being reported for the first time.

Journal of Plant Physiology, 160(6):607-614(8), 2003
Regulation of anthraquinone biosynthesis in cell cultures of Morinda citrifolia
Stalman, M., Koskamp, A-M., Luderer, R., Vernooy, J.H.J., Wind, J.C., Wullems, G.J., Croes, A.F.

Cell cultures of Morinda citrifolia L. are capable of accumulating substantial amounts of anthraquinones. Chorismate formed by the shikimate pathway is an important precursor of these secondary metabolites. Isochorismate synthase (EC, the enzyme that channels chorismate into the direction of the anthraquinones, is involved in the regulation of anthraquinone biosynthesis. Other enzymes of the shikimate pathway such as deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (EC and chorismate mutase (EC do not play a regulatory role in the process. The accumulation of anthraquinones is correlated with isochorismate synthase activity under a variety of conditions, which indicates that under most circumstances the concentration of the branchpoint metabolite chorismate is not a rate-limiting factor. Anthraquinone biosynthesis in Morinda is strongly inhibited by 2,4-D, but much less by NAA. Both auxins inhibit the activity of isochorismate synthase proportionally to the concomitant reduction in the amount of anthraquinone accumulated. However, the correlation between enzyme activity and rate of biosynthesis is less clear when the activity of the enzyme is very high. In this case, a limiting concentration of precursor may determine the extent of anthraquinone accumulation. Partial inhibition of chorismate biosynthesis by glyphosate leads to less anthraquinone accumulation, but also to a reduction in ICS activity. The complexity of the interference of glyphosate with anthraquinone biosynthesis is illustrated by the effect of the inhibitor in cell cultures of the related species Rubia tinctorum L. In these cells, glyphosate leads to an increase in anthraquinone content and a concomitant rise in ICS activity. All data indicate that the main point of regulation in anthraquinone biosynthesis is located at the entrance of the specific secondary route.

J. Nat. Prod., 68:1720-1722, 2005
An Anthraquinone with Potent Quinone Reductase-Inducing Activity and Other Constituents of the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)

The authors first discuss the long history of usage of Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, throughout much of tropical Polynesia, and the Hawaiian Islands. Also, its recent use as a dietary supplement in the United States has greatly increased. Accompanying these increased usages have been numerous beneficial health claims related to arthritis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and overall health. In this study, the Pawlus group was able to isolate from the fruit of noni an extremely potent and potential cancer preventative, anthraquinone (a type of anti cancer drug). This new anthraquinone was nearly 40 times more potent than a positive control. Furthermore, it demonstrated no discernible cytotoxicity (damage to body cells) at the highest dose tested. In addition, eleven known compounds were also isolated and identified. This is the first report of the isolation of anthraquinones from noni fruits.

Angiogenesis, 6(2):143-149, 2003
Inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disruption of newly established human vascular networks by juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni)
Hornick, C.A., Myers, A., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Anthony, C.T., Woltering, E.A.

We tested the effects of noni juice in a three-dimensional fibrin clot matrix model using human placental vein and human breast tumor explants as sources for angiogenic vessel development. Noni in concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) or greater was highly effective in inhibiting the initiation of new vessel sprouts from placental vein explants, compared with initiation in control explants in media supplemented with an equivalent amount of saline. These concentrations of noni were also effective in reducing the growth rate and proliferation of newly developing capillary sprouts. When used at a concentration of 10% in growth media, noni was able to induce vessel degeneration and apoptosis in wells with established capillary networks within a few days of its application. We also found that 10% noni juice in media was an effective inhibitor of capillary initiation in explants from human breast tumors. In tumor explants which did show capillary sprouting, the vessels rapidly degenerated (2-3 days) in those exposed to media supplemented with 10% noni.

Phytother Res., 17(10):1158-1164, 2003
Antitumour potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumour in mice
Furusawa, E., Hirazumi, A., Story, S., Jensen, J.

An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumour system. The antitumour activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhibitors of macrophages (2-chloroadenosine), T cells (cyclosporine) or natural killer (NK) cells (anti-asialo GM1 antibody). Noni-ppt showed synergistic or additive beneficial effects when combined with a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin-C, bleomycin, etoposide, 5- fl uorouracil, vincristine or camptothecin. It was not beneficial when combined with paclitaxel, cytosine arabinoside, or immunosuppressive anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate or 6-thioguanine. Noni-ppt also demonstrated beneficial effects when combined with the Th1 cytokine, interferon gamma, but its activity was abolished when combined with Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 or interleukin-10, thereby suggesting that Noni-ppt induces a Th1 dominant immune status in vivo. The combination of Noni-ppt with imexon, a synthetic immunomodulator, also demonstrated beneficial effects, but not when combined with the MVE-2 copolymer, a high molecular weight immunomodulator. It was also not effective when combined with interleukin-2 or interleukin-12.

Hawaii Medical Journal, 63:182-184, 2004
Are immune responses pivotal to cancer patient's long term survival? Two clinical case-study reports on the effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
Wong, D.W.W.

There are abundant claims of benefit from cancer patients' use of noni but no well-documented clinical reports in peer reviewed journals. The author examined 2 such claims through interview, and review of medical records and pathology slides. The author concludes that these cases are valuable experiences and hope to stimulate interest in noni research as an important part of adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer.

Chinese Journal of Physiology, 47(4):169-174, 2004
Effect of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying in male rats
Pu, H.F., et al.

Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 mL/kg once per day for 1 or 7 days," explained H.F. Pu and coauthors at National Yang-Ming University in Taipei. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the experimental group were fasted overnight before measurement of gastrointestinal motility. The results suggest that oral noni inhibits gastric emptying in male rats via a mechanism involving stimulation of CCK secretion and CCK1 receptor activation.

QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH Official Journal of the International Society for Quality of Life Research 14(9):P-70/1342, 2005
Abstract presented at 12th Annual Conference of the International Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQOL) Quality of Life (QOL) Assessment in a Phase I Trial of Noni
Issell, B.F., Gotay, C.C., Pagano, I. Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI

The objective of this study was to identify the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of noni. Noni fruit extract is a popular dietary supplement that is widely used as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by cancer patients. Twenty-nine patients were assessed. The distribution of performance status, extent of disease and prior treatment did not vary across dose levels. A multilevel regression analysis of noni dose (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 g) and week of study showed a statistically significant [t(35) = 2.84, P = 0.006] decrease in pain interference with activities as measured by question 19 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale. Also, consistent marginally significant dose–response effects were found for global health status, physical functioning and fatigue. No effects were found on the BFI and CES-D. No adverse toxic events attributable to noni and no measured tumor regressions were seen. Conclusion: QOL measures may be useful for selecting dosing for subsequent phase II/III efficacy trials, particularly for CAM agents that are commonly used but of unproven value.


Noni Footprint

Some years ago when there was a proliferation of nonis on the market, Morinda decided to construct a chemical footprint on each one.  Here is a booklet which discussesd this and shows the difference between the noni products then extant.